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Balancing PATENTS & Affordable DRUGS

Pharma Sector in India is caught in the debate over the enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and access to affordable medicines. Affordable drugs are necessary and is a matter of great concern for the healthcare system. There is a need to refine the Drug policy in India in the light of growing concerns about patent filing in the pharma sector and access to cheap medicines.

Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights encourages companies to invest in research and development. Most companies invest in research and development so that they can reap profits from the product developed. Patenting the product or process ensures that others do not replicate the concerned product to gain a share of the potential profits. But the critics of enforcement of intellectual property rights in the pharma sector argue that patents encourage monopolies. The pharmaceutical companies who patent drugs can sell those drugs at quite high prices because of no competition involved in the marketing of the drug.

The incomplete understanding of intellectual property rights (IPRs) is the real issue that India’s drug industry is facing. Currently, only 5% of medicines used in India are said to be patent-protected. Breakthrough therapies are being developed in the world but why these therapies are not made available to India but are being introduced in other countries?

It is observed that the new drugs and therapies encounter delay in marketing approval in India despite their global launch. Moreover the new drugs that are launched in India are produced and sold as generic versions by Indian manufacturers within one year of their introduction. Generic medicines are the copies of brand name counterparts of drugs originally developed by other companies. The rapid appearance of generic versions of medicines and delays in marketing approval display a lack of faith in the patent regime.

Patents are important in innovative sectors like pharmaceutical industry as they provide incentives for companies to invest in those sectors. Investment in innovation, research and development is an essential component of supporting an innovative and enterprising economy.

In order to link medical innovation with affordable treatment  a supportive role by the Government is required. The government should design a price-control mechanism without tampering the grant of patents. The government should deploy tools to reduce uncertainty in Intellectual Property Rights and to build an ecosystem that promotes medical innovation. We must achieve a balance between the current and future needs of patients and the timely introduction of existing and new pharmaceutical drugs.

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Patent Searching RESEARCH by Genius Geeks

Patent Search: Determine how prior art is similar or different?

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Patent filing requires “money”. Patents have filing fees, professional fees and maintenance fees over the life of the patent and a large amount of money is required for the defence of the patent. A Patent search is carried out inorder to ascertain that the patent generates enough financial gains to justify the cost associated with its filing and the time and expense of moving forward with a patent application is a worthwhile.

For inventors, searching prior-art in the form of patents filed and granted should be the first step in the patent application process. Patent search gives an opportunity to discover which aspects of your invention can be claimed and high quality patent searches can help inventors anticipate about the scope of any patent claim. Without a patent search an inventor will describe the various  aspects of an invention as if they are equally important which won’t be the case.  

A patent is lot more than just a document. Careful assessment of patents found in the search report is tedious but the inventors who really take the time to read the key patents found in the search know its importance in contributing to the decision about whether to move forward with the patent application and then ultimately to meaningfully contribute to the preparation of a patent application.

Unfortunately, a lot of inventors only give a hasty and not thorough review of the patents found, thereby missing a great opportunity to use the prior art found to figure out what is most likely unique and patentable. Inventors perhaps look at the titles, the pictures, maybe read the Abstract and get overwhelmed.

For this reason inventors frequently choose to hire a patent professional or patent attorney for carrying out patent search. The inventor has the detailed knowledge of the invention, and is in the best position to identify the similarity and differences of the invention with respect to the prior art and the patent professional is in the best position to determine whether those differences will likely contribute to patentability through a collaborative approach.

A detailed compiled disclosure of the invention forms the foundation of a strong patent application. Determining how the prior art is similar and how it is different is essential to being able to gather great detail of information that can be put together while writing a patent application and invariably leads to a far more detailed written description of the invention.

Many a times inventors carry out a patent search themselves before filing a patent application and during the patent examination an exact invention already patented is found. But this is why you do the search!!!!

Thus, It is better to spend a modest amount of money on patent search before filing a patent application to learn about the prior patents instead of spending a lot of money on patent application only to learn later that no patent could be obtained.

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Sustainable innovations and their impact on economic growth of the country

Sustainable innovations and their impact on economic growth of the country

Technology and innovation policy is linked to the three verticals of sustainable development namely economic growth, social integrity and environmental conservation.

Sustainability requires innovations with a reduced impact on the environment. In the face of current situation, world’s three biggest challenges are: water supply, energy supply, and global warming.

But even the most advanced brands haven’t begun to approach solutions to the issue. Most companies are spending their resources working on reuse and minimizing the resources that go into producing goods. But that can only take us part of the way to sustainability.

The major issue is that most companies are coming up with more and more products for the consumers without mechanisms for re-usage. The problem is getting worse with ever-shortening product life cycles.

Why is it that even the remarkably innovative, entrepreneurial, and intensely competitive companies can’t find ways to deal with these global challenges?

Finding sustainable solutions isn’t about discovering new, indelibly disruptive ideas because the more green solutions we have, the less effective and efficient processes become.

There are three major changes brands must put into place to find a solution to this problem.

Standardize– There will be no sustainable business without standardization.  Companies in all industries need to agree to certain manner of production that allow for recycling. To win the battle of sustainability, companies will have to give up individuality for standards. For example. In many countries, glass bottles used in beer and wine industries are reused over and over again. This is possible only because the big brands have agreed to stick to a certain size and type of bottle.

Design products well- The time it takes to get most products to market has been significantly reduced over the last decades. But to become sustainable, companies need to take their time and extend their product’s life cycle. Well-designed products simply last longer.

Redefine Consumption- Last but most important, companies must rethink the very idea of what they want consumers to consume and how they create value. The way towards sustainability is to add extra value to the everything from interior design, product innovation, marketing, and services already existing. The companies should learn that they can minimize the consumption of goods but increase total consumption at the same time.

All this poses a significant challenge to the current mindset of the managers of most companies. They have to learn that the next innovation frontier is about breaking away from resource dependence, decoupling growth and consumption, and prolonging product life cycles .

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Three Types Of Innovation. Here’s How To Manage Them

Three Types Of Innovation. Here’s How To Manage Them

“Dreamers are mocked as impractical. The truth is they are the most practical, as their innovations lead to progress and a better way of life for all of us.” ― Robin S. Sharma

With a view of generating revenue immediately from new products, a firm should customize the process of product development for different kinds of innovations. For a company the biggest challenges aren’t in coming up with big ideas but in the organizational and management issues that these new ideas bring along.

No matter what a company is dealing in, companies strive to create innovative products and services adequately and accurately.  

“Chance favors the connected mind.” ― Steven Johnson

For an individual to to bring new ideas to market, create more realistic testing and growth expectations and better manage their innovation pipelines, it is important to identify the types of innovations, needs and the correct approach to nurture and grow the type of innovation.

THE THREE TYPES OF INNOVATIONS

To prolong their stay in the market, companies need to come up with sustaining products and services. Sustaining innovations in products or services help any organization raise the bar enough to stay in the game. These innovations can sometimes be thought of as modification of an already existing product.

To significantly up the level of game within an existing category a company should come up with remarkable offerings. The product should be such that seeing it, customers couldn’t help but want it–over time making it the best-selling product.

“Progress is made by lazy men looking for easier ways to do things.” ― Robert A. Heinlein

When we think about an innovation, many of us have some sort of ideas in our mind. Such breakthrough ideas are called disruptive innovations because they disrupt the current market behavior, rendering existing solutions old-school, transforming values, and bringing previously marginal customers and companies into the center of attention.

The Social media could be considered a disruptive innovation within sports. More specifically, the social media has radically changed the way that news in sports circulates nowadays. Social media has created a new market for sports that was not around before in the sense that players and fans have instant access to information related to sports.

“In a world of change, the learners shall inherit the earth, while the learned shall find themselves perfectly suited for a world that no longer exists.” ― Eric Hoffer

To help explain the difference between these three types of innovations, let’s look at the coffee industry. Maxwell House came up with a dark roast version of coffee, it introduced a sustaining innovation. A new flavour was only a variation on their existing products.

A breakout innovation was General Foods’ line of International Coffees, which added connoisseur of fine flavors to the instant coffee category and elevated the at-home coffee experience. And Starbucks has obviously been a disruptive innovation, turning coffee into a destination experience worth paying a lot more for.

“Innovation is the specific instrument of entrepreneurship…the act that endows resources with a new capacity to create wealth.” ― Peter F. Drucker

In a given category, disruptive innovations come first and are then followed by a series of progressive innovations, with sporadic breakout hits interspersed. Eventually, the market is disrupted once again, starting the cycle anew.

Although  disruptive innovations have the potential to yield the greatest benefit to a company, it is not necessary that it will lead to immediate market success. Because disruptive offerings differ significantly from the existing products, they often require time to gain market acceptance.

“You have to take your own bold approach, and if you do you will be rewarded with success. Or calamitous failure. That can happen too.” ― Steven Moffat

Analysis of revenue and consumer buying patterns:

  • Sustaining: Immediately moderate, then tapering off.
  • Breakout: Rapidly strong, then quickly dropping to a lower level.
  • Disruptive: Longer gestation period leading to exponential growth.

For disruptive undertakings, success typically requires different development processes,

different approval and funding mechanisms, and different performance expectations. At

times, work on a disruptive innovation gets stalled in a system that is optimized for the creation of sustaining offerings. For the success of a project a company should tailormade their approach depending on the goals.

“Innovation is an evolutionary process, so it’s not necessary to be radical all the time.” ― Marc Jacobs

To support the ultimate goal of generating immediate revenue, companies should classify each of its new product concepts within the framework of sustaining, breakout, or disruptive. This allows a company to manage risk and reward at a portfolio level.

Categorizing innovations using this framework is an effective way to ensure that target outcomes are in line with the expectations. Companies are able to focus their innovation efforts by clearly stating that they are prioritizing the development of breakout products and consciously minimizing the exploration of disruptive opportunities.

“Do not get obsolete like an old technology, keep innovating yourself.” ― Sukant Ratnakara

 

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Food Processing Sector

Food Processing Sector-“priority sector” in India’s Make in India Programme

India is one of the quickest growing economies in the world. India has climbed 30 ranks in the World Bank’s ease of doing Business rankings 2017 and was ranked number 1 in the world in 2016 in greenfield investment. The government of India is undertaking a range of transformational initiatives as a result of which India is also rapidly progressing on the Global Innovation Index, Global Logistics Index and Global Competitiveness Index. World Food India (WFI) was a gateway to the Indian food economy and an opportunity to showcase, connect, and collaborate.

“World Food India 2017”

A global event to facilitate partnerships between Indian and international businesses and investors held in India from 3rd Nov 2017 to 5th Nov 2017. World Food India 2017 was organized by the Ministry of Food Processing Industries, Government of India and was inaugurated by Honourable Prime Minister Narendra Modi at Vigyan Bhavan in New Delhi on 3rd Nov 2017. World Food India 2017 hosted the largest gathering of investors, manufacturers, producers, food processors, policy makers, and organizations from the global food ecosystem to provides opportunities for both investment and trade in the food processing sector for leading Indian and International companies.

Food Processing Sector is the”priority sector” in India’s Make in India Programme. India is now the most preferred investment destination in the Food processing Sector because 100% Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is now permitted, for trading, including via e-commerce, of food products manufactured in India. As an incentive from the Union and state governments, it has become very easy to obtain loans for food and agro-based processing units, and cold chains at low Interest Rates.

Nivesh Bandhu or investor’s friend is a one of its kind portal launched by Government of India to bring together information on Central and State Government policies and incentives provided for the food processing sector. It is also a platform for business networking, for farmers, processors, traders, and logistics operators.

 

Registration of design under design act 2000
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Registration of Industrial Designs in India

Registration of Industrial Designs in India”

An “Industrial Design” is an Intellectual Property Right (IPR) that recognizes and protects the new shape, configuration, surface pattern, ornamentations and composition of lines or colours applied to articles (visual design) and not the functional part of the object/article. The design can be made by hand, or by any tool or machine, or by combination also. The design is judged merely by eye, without the help of any other mechanical device.

How to register industrial design and protect your industrial design in INDIA?

The registration and protection of industrial designs in India is administered by the Designs Act , 2000 and corresponding Designs Rules , 2001 which came into force on 11th May 2001 repealing the earlier Act of 1911. The Design Rules, 2001 was further amended by Designs (Amendment) Rules 2008 and Designs (Amendment) Rules 2014.

The industrial design registration like any other Intellectual Property, is particularly useful. For many industries, design is the simplest way of differentiating their products from the competitive products and customers may also associate a product with particular company or with a particular quality standard based on the product aesthetics. Thus, the popularity of the industrial design is helpful in popularity of the business entity. Many companies that manufacture duplicate or imitation products usually copy the design and look of the product to gain market shares. As a result it becomes very important to protect a design.

Essential points for Registering of industrial design:

Following mentioned points are the essentials to be kept in mind before applying for the registration of the industrial design application in India:

  • The industrial design should be novel, original and has never been used before.
  • The industrial design should not have been disclosed to the public anywhere in India or in any other country prior to the priority date of the application.
  • The industrial design should relate to the article and its functionality.
  • The industrial design should have artistic value.
  • The industrial design should be significantly distinguishable from known designs or combination of known design.
  • The industrial design should not comprise or contain scandalous or obscene matter. Industrial design rights are granted for a limited period.

    The duration of the protection of industrial designs varies from country to country. In India, the registration of industrial design initially confers the right for 10 years from the date of registration. It is further renewable for a period of 5 years.

    If the fee for further period of registration is not paid within the period of initial registration, the industrial design rights will cease. But there is also a provision for the restoration of lapsed design. The lapsed design can be restored by filing an application for restoration within one year from the date of cessation in the prescribed manner.

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Bee Vectoring Technologies

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Investing in passion. We invest in passionate founders with deep industry insights, providing capital and mentorship at the earliest stages of venture creation.

Granted Two Patents

About Bee Vectoring Technologies International Inc.

BVT has developed and owns patent-pending bee vectoring technology that is designed to harmlessly utilize bumblebees and honeybees as natural delivery mechanisms for a variety of powdered mixtures comprised of organic compounds that inhibit or control common crop diseases, while at the same time enhancing crop vigor and productivity. This unique and proprietary process enables a targeted delivery of crop controls using the simple process of bee pollination to replace traditional crop spraying, resulting in better yields, superior quality, and less impact on the environment without the use of water or disruptions to labour.

Bee Vectoring Technologies (the “Company” or “BVT”) (BEE) is feeling enthusiastic to announce that it has received notice of allowance of subject  patent applications in two new and significant agricultural sector and gets approval of patent on October 2,  2017.

Chile Patent No. 53.259: Represents the first patent protected  by the Company in South America.

Japan Patent No. 6066496: Represents the first patent protected in Japan, and increasing the strength of  the Asian patent portfolio which already includes a previously approved patent in China.

BVT CEO, Ashish Malik said “These patent approvals are important milestones for the company as Chile and Japan are significant anchor countries for the agricultural sector of South America and Asia respectively. The crop protection market in Chile and Japan combined is estimated to be US$2.7 billion. In particular, fruit and vegetable crops makes a wide portion of both the Chilean and Japanese markets, and both are amongst the largest markets in the world. Securing patents in North America, South America, Europe, Asia and Australia allows us to pursue the global market opportunity that exists for crop protection with confidence and helps ensure our approach of being first to market with our proprietary solutions.” Malik added “With these patents secured, BVT safeguards our competitive advantage and allows us to further our business development discussions with potential partners who are showing interest in working with us to introduce our system to growers worldwide. Many partners have a strong preference in working only with proprietary and patent-protected technologies. As we move through the commercialization process, these partners will be critical to our success in these markets and provide scalability quickly and efficiently.”

The patent applicant Bee Vectoring Tech Inc filed a patent titled “APPARATUS FOR TREATMENT OF PLANTS” bearing patent publication number PL2693871 on 2011-04-07. The inventor of the present innovation under agricultural sector are Collision Michael and Howard D Hearn. The patent invention relates to treatment of growing trees or plants, for e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, and for prolonging the life of plants. The innovation relates to a tray for positioning in an exit path of a bee hive comprises a base, a bee entrance end, and a bee exit end. Spaced apart side walls extend upwardly from the base. The sidewalls extend generally lengthwise between the bee entrance end and bee exit end. A plurality of posts extend upwardly from the base and are positioned between the bee entrance end and the bee exit end. The posts are generally circular in cross-section. The posts act as obstacles around which the bees must walk to reach the bee exit end from the bee entrance end.

The patent innovation would be classified as beehives, for e.g. ventilating devices, entrances to hives, guards, partitions, and bee escapes. However, the present innovation can also be classified as appliances for treating beehives or parts thereof, for e.g. for cleaning or disinfecting.

The patent applicant Bee Vectoring Tech Inc filed a patent titled “Isolated strain of clonostachys rosea for use as a biological control agent” bearing publication number PE09492016 on  2013-09-11.The inventor of the present innovation under agricultural sector are Sutton John and Mason Todd Gordon. The patent invention relates to Symbiotic or parasitic combinations including one or more new plants e.g. mycorrhiza . The innovation Described is an isolated strain of the fungus Colonostachys rosea termed BVT Cr-7 useful as a biological control agent for the treatment of plants. The isolated strain, formulations comprising said strain and/or spores derived from said strain may be applied to plants or plant materials in order to improve plant yield, to improve plant growth, or for the treatment or prevention of diseases or pathogens in the plant. The innovation relates to a Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators, characterised by their forms, or by their non-active ingredients or by their methods of application, e.g. seed treatment or sequential application; (apparatus for the destruction of noxious animals or noxious plants fungicidal, bactericidal, insecticidal, disinfecting or antiseptic paper  Substances for reducing the noxious effect of the active ingredients to organisms other than pests.

The innovation makes use of substance containing ingredients stabilising the active ingredients.

The patent applicant Bee Vectoring Tech Inc filed a patent titled “Containing ingredients stabilising the active ingredients” bearing publication number US2016213006 on  2012-03-12.The inventor of the present innovation under agricultural sector are MASON Todd Gordon and Sutton John Clifford.The Patent invention relates to a  isolated strain, formulations comprising said strain and/or spores derived from said strain may be applied to plants or plant materials in order to improve plant yield, to improve plant growth, or for the treatment or prevention of diseases or pathogens in the plant.” The innovation described a powder plant treatment formulation for application to plants by insect vectoring includes: a plant treatment agent; a stabilizing agent bonded to the plant treatment agent for stabilizing the plant treatment agent; a moisture absorption agent for absorbing moisture from the formulation; an attracting agent for attracting the formulation to plants; and a diluent.The patent invention relates to Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators, characterised by their forms, or by their non-active ingredients or by their methods of application, e.g. seed treatment or sequential application; (apparatus for the destruction of noxious animals or noxious plants,fungicidal, bactericidal, insecticidal, disinfecting or antiseptic paper,Substances for reducing the noxious effect of the active ingredients to organisms other than pests.The Invention makes use of  a substance that contain ingredients stabilising the active ingredients.

The patent applicant Bee Vectoring Tech Inc filed a patent titled “APPARATUS FOR TREATMENT OF PLANTS” bearing patent  number US9526233 on 2016-12-27. The inventor of the present innovation under agricultural sector are Collinson Michel Howard D Hearn and Kevan Peter G. The patent innovation relates a bee vectoring apparatus includes a tray for positioning in the exit path of a beehive. The tray includes a bottom, a bee entrance end, and a bee exit end. The apparatus includes a tray lid positioned above the bottom, with first and second barrier walls extruding downwardly from the lid. A ceiling extends between bottom ends of the first and second barrier walls. The patent invention would contain some other details of beehives, e.g. ventilating devices, entrances to hives, guards, partitions, bee escapese e.t.c.

BVT has also filed a patent application with the US patent office for  novel system that allows the delivery of plant protection products to crops using commercial honeybees.

The Company is pursuing an aggressive Intellectual Property (IP) strategy that covers five different patent families and 60 patent applications worldwide. The IP strategy supports the Company’s documented growth strategy to selectively expand its market opportunities while it drives towards commercialization of its proprietary system in the US.

BVT’s technology described in these patents includes a specialist apparatus for the treatment of plants with inoculants and control agents to manage diverse diseases and pests and enhance the yield and quality of crops. The inoculants and control agents are housed in proprietary removable trays within a dispenser system that is incorporated in the lid of commercial bumble bee hives.

The bumblebees pick up the inoculant on their way out of the hive and deliver the treatment to the plant in a very targeted and sustainable way.

Our delivery platform provides a groundbreaking management system that delivers highly targeted and effective pest and disease control and improves the quality of your crop.We combine our active ingredients and easy to use tray system with the natural pollination process of commercially reared bees. This provides the foundation for a season-long pest and disease management program with a biological control that is safe for bees, people and the environment. Ashish Malik, President & CEO Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.

This press release contains certain “forward-looking statements” that involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties. All statements in this press release, other than statements of historical fact, that address events or developments that BVT expects to occur, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this press release include, but are not limited to, statements with respect to BVT’S future plans and technologies, including the timing of such plans and technologies. Forward-looking statements are statements that are not historical facts and are generally, but not always, identified by the words “expects”, “plans”, “anticipates”, “believes”, “intends”, “estimates”, “projects”, “potential”, “indicate” and similar expressions, or that events or conditions “will”, “would”, “may”, “could” or “should” occur. Although BVT believes that the expectations expressed in such forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, such statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results may differ materially from those in forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause the actual results to differ materially from those in forward-looking statements include continued availability of capital, financing and required resources (such as human resources, equipment and/or other capital resources), and general economic, market or business conditions. Investors are cautioned that any such statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results or developments may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements.

 

How do you get something copyrighted? What are the right of copyrights?
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How to Copyright Website and Mobile Applications in India

What is Copyright?

Copyright, is an exclusive and assignable legal right, given to the originator for a fixed number of years, to print, publish, perform, film, or record literary, artistic , or musical material. Actually copyright is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of original work and given exclusive rights of its use and distribution, fora limited period of time

Copyright is a form of intellectual property, copyright are considered territorial rights,which means that they don’t extend beyond the territory of a specific jurisdiction.

It is a right which a person take for the protection of his business name which any other person didn’t take for the operation of business, as different person can do same business but the condition in copyright is that name shouldn’t be the same, as if it was, then the person who take the name of other person business for the operation of his business then it will be a offence and was punishable.

And now a days not only business like big brands, big restaurants, telecommunications etc, but websites are also involved in copyright act like Wikipedia, encyclopedia, yahoo.com, gmail.com, etc. they also make themselves register under copyright act for the exclusive rights through which websites make their names copyright and no other can take their names for the profitability, and now mobile applications are also there to register under the copyright act for the exclusive rights for the more profitability.

How to copyright ?

Following are steps of copyrighting;

Step 1: Filing the Application

Along with the requisite fee, an application needs to be submitted either in DD/IPO. Once this application is filed, a diary number is generated and issued to the applicant.

Step 2: Examination

There is a minimum wait of 30 days for recording and analysing any objections that may come up against the copyright application

a. In case of no Objection:

The application goes ahead for scrutinization by an examiner. This scrutiny gives rise to two options:

1. In case of discrepancy found during scrutiny:

A letter of discrepancy is sent to the applicant letter is generated and sent to the applicant.

Based on the reply from the applicant, the registrar conducts a hearing of the alleged discrepancy row.

Once the discrepancies are sorted during the hearing, the extracts of the same are sent to the applicant for him/her to register the copyright.

2. In case of zero discrepancy:

This would mean that the copyright application fulfil all criterion required for the copyright. The applicant is then given the nod to go ahead with the registration of the same.

(If the registration is not approved, then the applicant received a letter of rejection)

b. In case of an objection filed:

While we listed above the scenarios of ‘no objections’, in case one is faced with an objection, the following proceedings take place:

Authorities send out letters to the two concerned parties, trying to convince them to take back the objection. After requisite replies from the third party, the registrar conducts a hearing.

Depending on whether the registrar accepts the reply, the procedure takes shape

1. If the application is accepted:

The application being accepted means that the objection has been rejected. The application goes ahead for scrutinization by an examiner. This scrutiny gives rise to two options:

2. In case of discrepancy found during scrutiny:

A letter of discrepancy is sent to the applicant letter is generated and sent to the applicant.

Based on the reply from the applicant, the registrar conducts a hearing of the alleged discrepancy row.

Once the discrepancies are sorted during the hearing, the extracts of the same are sent to the applicant for him/her to register the copyright.

c. In case of zero discrepancy:

This would mean that the copyright application fulfils all criterion required for the copyright. The applicant is then given the nod to go ahead with the registration of the same. (If the registration is not approved, then the applicant received a letter of rejection)

d. If application is rejected:

In case this happens, then the applicant receives a rejection letter that marks the end of the copyright procedure.

Step 3: Registration

As can be seen from the aforementioned steps, the registration solely depends on the registrar. Once everything is cleared from the registrar’s end, the applicant received the copyright and can legally exercise all rights that come with the owner of that copyright.